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Public Utilities

Consumer Confidence Reporting System

2008 Consumer Confidence Report

The Consumer Confidence Report is not only required by the EPA but is a valuable tool for the Communities of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe to monitor the quality of the water we use.

Below is an overview of the tests we conduct.

Coliform Bacteria: Monthly - Bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, commonly found in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals. In sanitary bacteriology, these organisms are defined as all aerobic and facultative anaerobic, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with gas and acid formation within 48 hours at 95° Fahrenheit (35° Celsius).1

Radionuclides: Every 4 Years - Radioactive elements, which may be naturally-occurring or synthetic. They emit various types of energetic radiation --- alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation. Their half-lives range from a minute fraction of a second to many thousand years. Certain radionuclides have valuable medical and industrial uses. One is used in home smoke detectors at an amount that can cause no harmful effects.

Asbestos: Every 9 Years - A strong and incombustible fiber widely used in the past for fireproofing and insulation. The small, buoyant fibers are easily inhaled or swallowed, causing a number of serious diseases including: asbestosis, a chronic disease of the lungs that makes breathing more and more difficult; cancer; and mesothelioma, a cancer (specific to asbestos exposure) of the membranes that line the chest and abdomen.

Nitrate: Once a Year - Chemicals made up of oxygen, nitrogen and other elements. When chemicals containing nitrogen (for example, ammonia) combine with water, nitrates are usually formed, and these nitrates can cause serious illness or even death if large amounts are consumed. Nitrate poisoning is usually caused by drinking water contaminated with nitrates. The primary sources of nitrate pollution are human waste and manure, especially runoff from factory farms. ...

Inorganics: Every 3 Years - Matter which does not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. Minerals (eg Silica), and metals (eg Lead) are included in this group.

Pesticides and Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOC's): Every 3 Years - Pesticides is the descriptor applied to chemicals used to kill pests and minimise their impact on agriculture, health and other human interests. Pesticides are often classified according to the organisms which they are used to control, eg as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, molluscicides, nematicides, rodenticides etc. SOC's are manmade organic chemicals. Some SOC's are volatile and evaporate; others tend to stay dissolved in water rather than evaporate out of it.

Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOC's): Every 3 Years - These are chemicals of an organic nature (containing hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon) which readily volatilize, or travel from the water into the air. Most such substances are industrial chemicals and solvents. They include light alcohols, acetone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, dichloroethylene, benzene, vinyl chloride, toluene, and methylene chloride. These potentially toxic chemicals are used as solvents, degreasers, paints, thinners, and fuels. ...

Lead and Copper: Every 3 Years, unless high levels are detected - Lead is a toxic "heavy metal" that tends to accumulate in the body and is stored primarily in bones. Lead can be found in the air, water and soil. It has no known beneficial effect on humans or animals. Lead is readily absorbed by the body. High blood lead levels contribute to a variety of problems including mental retardation, interference with kidney and neurological functions, and hearing loss in children. Children are quite susceptible to the adverse affects of lead due to their immature central nervous systems and their high rate of lead adsorption. Because water intake per pound of body weight is higher in children than adults, contaminated water is a higher risk to youth. Lead is rarely found as a naturally occurring contaminant in water. Its presence is most often due to the corrosion of water system piping. Lead piping (older homes), connections and solder have been identified as the primary sources of lead in drinking water. Lead has also been found recently in the brass fittings of certain brands of submersible well pumps. Lead piping and solder were banned by the EPA in 1986. Though a given home may contain lead in its water system, this does not necessarily mean that their will be lead in the water. The waters corrosivity will influence the rate of lead dissolution in water. Softened and acidic waters are the most likely to leach lead (and copper) from the system plumbing. To confirm the presence of lead the water must be analyzed by a state certified laboratory.

Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs): Once a Year (new as of 2005) - Total Trihalomethanes are a byproduct of chlorination and refer to four chlorinated organic chemicals: Bromodichlororomethane, Bromoform, Dibromochloromethane and Chloroform. Any of several synthetic organic compounds formed when chlorine or bromine combine with organic materials in water. Usually surface water.

Haloacetic Acids (HAAS): Once a Year (new as of 2005) - A class of disinfection by-products formed primarily during the chlorination of water containing natural organic matter. When bromide (Br–) is present, a total of nine chlorine-, bromine-and-chlorine-, or bromine-substituted species may be formed. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids are the two most prevalent classes of by-products formed during chlorination; and subject to regulation under the Disinfectant/Disinfection by-products rule.